Pain and pain management – adults May 21, 2019 11:08:05 GMT -5
Post by janethecky on May 21, 2019 11:08:05 GMT -5
Pain is a very common condition. The occurrence of pain rises as people get older, and women are more likely to experience pain than men.
There are two main types of pain.
acute pain – a normal response to an injury. It starts suddenly and is usually short-lived
chronic pain – continues beyond the time expected for healing. It generally lasts for longer than three months.
Pain may be anything from a dull ache to a sharp stab and can range from mild to extreme. You may feel pain in one part of your body or it may be widespread.
Studies suggest that a person’s emotional wellbeing can impact the experience of pain. Understanding the cause and learning effective ways to cope with your pain can improve your quality of life.
Key pain management strategies include:
physical therapies (such as heat or cold packs, massage, hydrotherapy and exercise)
psychological therapies (such as cognitive behavioural therapy, relaxation techniques and meditation)
mind and body techniques (such as acupuncture)
community support groups.
Causes of pain
The most common causes of pain in adults include:
medical conditions (such as cancer, arthritis and back problems)
The most commonly reported types of pain are headache and back pain (although pain involving the limbs, shoulder and neck is also common).
Many people will use a pain medicine (analgesic) at some time in their lives.
The main types of pain medicines are:
paracetamol – often recommended as the first medicine to relieve short-term pain
aspirin – for short-term relief of fever and mild-to-moderate pain (such as period pain or headache)
non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), such as ibuprofen – these medicines relieve pain and reduce inflammation (redness and swelling)
opioid medications, such as codeine, morphine and oxycodone – these medicines are reserved for severe or cancer pain
some anti-epileptic medicines.
How pain medicines work
Pain medicines work in various ways. Aspirin and other NSAIDs are pain medicines that help to reduce inflammation and fever. They do this by stopping chemicals called prostaglandins. Prostaglandins cause inflammation, swelling and make nerve endings sensitive, which can lead to pain.
Prostaglandins also help protect the stomach from stomach acid, which is why these medicines can cause irritation and bleeding in some people.
Opioid medicines work in a different way. They change pain messages in the brain, which is why these medicines can be addictive. medications to manage those conditions.